1. Extracting Keywords from Open-Ended Business Survey Questions

McGillivray, Barbara ; Jenset, Gard ; Heil, Dominik.
Open-ended survey data constitute an important basis in research as well as for making business decisions. Collecting and manually analysing free-text survey data is generally more costly than collecting and analysing survey data consisting of answers to multiple-choice questions. Yet free-text data allow for new content to be expressed beyond predefined categories and are a very valuable source of new insights into people's opinions. At the same time, surveys always make ontological assumptions about the nature of the entities that are researched, and this has vital ethical consequences. Human interpretations and opinions can only be properly ascertained in their richness using textual data sources; if these sources are analyzed appropriately, the essential linguistic nature of humans and social entities is safeguarded. Natural Language Processing (NLP) offers possibilities for meeting this ethical business challenge by automating the analysis of natural language and thus allowing for insightful investigations of human judgements. We present a computational pipeline for analysing large amounts of responses to open-ended questions in surveys and extract keywords that appropriately represent people's opinions. This pipeline addresses the need to perform such tasks outside the scope of both commercial software and bespoke analysis, exceeds the performance to state-of-the-art systems, and performs this task in a transparent way that allows for scrutinising and exposing […]
Section: Project

2. Evaluating Deep Learning Methods for Word Segmentation of Scripta Continua Texts in Old French and Latin

Clérice, Thibault.
Tokenization of modern and old Western European languages seems to be fairly simple, as it stands on the presence mostly of markers such as spaces and punctuation. However, when dealing with old sources like manuscripts written in scripta continua, antiquity epigraphy or Middle Age manuscripts, (1) such markers are mostly absent, (2) spelling variation and rich morphology make dictionary based approaches difficult. Applying convolutional encoding to characters followed by linear categorization to word-boundary or in-word-sequence is shown to be effective at tokenizing such inputs. Additionally, the software is released with a simple interface for tokenizing a corpus or generating a training set.
Section: Towards a Digital Ecosystem: NLP. Corpus infrastructure. Methods for Retrieving Texts and Computing Text Similarities

3. Deep Learning for Period Classification of Historical Hebrew Texts

Liebeskind, Chaya ; Liebeskind, Shmuel.
In this study, we address the interesting task of classifying historical texts by their assumed period of writ-ing. This task is useful in digital humanity studies where many texts have unidentified publication dates.For years, the typical approach for temporal text classification was supervised using machine-learningalgorithms. These algorithms require careful feature engineering and considerable domain expertise todesign a feature extractor to transform the raw text into a feature vector from which the classifier couldlearn to classify any unseen valid input. Recently, deep learning has produced extremely promising re-sults for various tasks in natural language processing (NLP). The primary advantage of deep learning isthat human engineers did not design the feature layers, but the features were extrapolated from data witha general-purpose learning procedure. We investigated deep learning models for period classification ofhistorical texts. We compared three common models: paragraph vectors, convolutional neural networks (CNN) and recurrent neural networks (RNN), and conventional machine-learning methods. We demon-strate that the CNN and RNN models outperformed the paragraph vector model and the conventionalsupervised machine-learning algorithms. In addition, we constructed word embeddings for each timeperiod and analyzed semantic changes of word meanings over time.