Digital humanities in languages

Ainu–Japanese Bi-directional Neural Machine Translation: A Step Towards Linguistic Preservation of Ainu, An Under-Resourced Indigenous Language in Japan

So Miyagawa.
This study presents a groundbreaking approach to preserving the Ainu language, recognized as critically endangered by UNESCO, by developing a bi-directional neural machine translation (MT) system between Ainu and Japanese. Utilizing the Marian MT framework, known for its effectiveness with resource-scarce languages, the research aims to overcome the linguistic complexities inherent in Ainu's polysynthetic structure. The paper delineates a comprehensive methodology encompassing data collection from diverse Ainu text sources, meticulous preprocessing, and the deployment of neural MT models, culminating in the achievement of significant SacreBLEU scores that underscore the models' translation accuracy. The findings illustrate the potential of advanced MT technology to facilitate linguistic preservation and educational endeavors, advocating for integrating such technologies in safeguarding endangered languages. This research not only underscores the critical role of MT in bridging language divides but also sets a precedent for employing computational linguistics to preserve cultural and linguistic heritage.

Incorporating Crowdsourced Annotator Distributions into Ensemble Modeling to Improve Classification Trustworthiness for Ancient Greek Papyri

Graham West ; Matthew I. Swindall ; Ben Keener ; Timothy Player ; Alex C. Williams ; James H. Brusuelas ; John F. Wallin.
Performing classification on noisy, crowdsourced image datasets can prove challenging even for the best neural networks. Two issues which complicate the problem on such datasets are class imbalance and ground-truth uncertainty in labeling. The AL-ALL and AL-PUB datasets - consisting of tightly cropped, individual characters from images of ancient Greek papyri - are strongly affected by both issues. The application of ensemble modeling to such datasets can help identify images where the ground-truth is questionable and quantify the trustworthiness of those samples. As such, we apply stacked generalization consisting of nearly identical ResNets with different loss functions: one utilizing sparse cross-entropy (CXE) and the other Kullback-Liebler Divergence (KLD). Both networks use labels drawn from a crowd-sourced consensus. This consensus is derived from a Normalized Distribution of Annotations (NDA) based on all annotations for a given character in the dataset. For the second network, the KLD is calculated with respect to the NDA. For our ensemble model, we apply a k-nearest neighbors model to the outputs of the CXE and KLD networks. Individually, the ResNet models have approximately 93% accuracy, while the ensemble model achieves an accuracy of > 95%, increasing the classification trustworthiness. We also perform an analysis of the Shannon entropy of the various models' output distributions to measure classification uncertainty. Our results suggest that entropy is useful for […]

Interactive Analysis and Visualisation of Annotated Collocations in Spanish (AVAnCES)

Simon Gonzalez.
Phraseology studies have been enhanced by Corpus Linguistics, which has become an interdisciplinary field where current technologies play an important role in its development. Computational tools have been implemented in the last decades with positive results on the identification of phrases in different languages. One specific technology that has impacted these studies is social media. As researchers, we have turned our attention to collecting data from these platforms, which comes with great advantages and its own challenges. One of the challenges is the way we design and build corpora relevant to the questions emerging in this type of language expression. This has been approached from different angles, but one that has given invaluable outputs is the building of linguistic corpora with the use of online web applications. In this paper, we take a multidimensional approach to the collection, design, and deployment of a phraseology corpus for Latin American Spanish from Twitter data, extracting features using NLP techniques, and presenting it in an interactive online web application. We expect to contribute to the methodologies used for Corpus Linguistics in the current technological age. Finally, we make this tool publicly available to be used by any researcher interested in the data itself and also on the technological tools developed here.

Rerunning OCR: A Machine Learning Approach to Quality Assessment and Enhancement Prediction

Pit Schneider ; Yves Maurer.
Iterating with new and improved OCR solutions enforces decision making when it comes to targeting the right candidates for reprocessing. This especially applies when the underlying data collection is of considerable size and rather diverse in terms of fonts, languages, periods of publication and consequently OCR quality. This article captures the efforts of the National Library of Luxembourg to support those targeting decisions. They are crucial in order to guarantee low computational overhead and reduced quality degradation risks, combined with a more quantifiable OCR improvement. In particular, this work explains the methodology of the library with respect to text block level quality assessment. Through extension of this technique, a regression model, that is able to take into account the enhancement potential of a new OCR engine, is also presented. They both mark promising approaches, especially for cultural institutions dealing with historical data of lower quality.

Adapting vs. Pre-training Language Models for Historical Languages

Enrique Manjavacas ; Lauren Fonteyn.
As large language models such as BERT are becoming increasingly popular in Digital Humanities (DH), the question has arisen as to how such models can be made suitable for application to specific textual domains, including that of 'historical text'. Large language models like BERT can be pretrained from scratch on a specific textual domain and achieve strong performance on a series of downstream tasks. However, this is a costly endeavour, both in terms of the computational resources as well as the substantial amounts of training data it requires. An appealing alternative, then, is to employ existing 'general purpose' models (pre-trained on present-day language) and subsequently adapt them to a specific domain by further pre-training. Focusing on the domain of historical text in English, this paper demonstrates that pre-training on domain-specific (i.e. historical) data from scratch yields a generally stronger background model than adapting a present-day language model. We show this on the basis of a variety of downstream tasks, ranging from established tasks such as Part-of-Speech tagging, Named Entity Recognition and Word Sense Disambiguation, to ad-hoc tasks like Sentence Periodization, which are specifically designed to test historically relevant processing.

Processing the structure of documents: Logical Layout Analysis of historical newspapers in French

Nicolas Gutehrlé ; Iana Atanassova.
Background. In recent years, libraries and archives led important digitisation campaigns that opened the access to vast collections of historical documents. While such documents are often available as XML ALTO documents, they lack information about their logical structure. In this paper, we address the problem of Logical Layout Analysis applied to historical documents in French. We propose a rule-based method, that we evaluate and compare with two Machine-Learning models, namely RIPPER and Gradient Boosting. Our data set contains French newspapers, periodicals and magazines, published in the first half of the twentieth century in the Franche-Comté Region. Results. Our rule-based system outperforms the two other models in nearly all evaluations. It has especially better Recall results, indicating that our system covers more types of every logical label than the other two models. When comparing RIPPER with Gradient Boosting, we can observe that Gradient Boosting has better Precision scores but RIPPER has better Recall scores. Conclusions. The evaluation shows that our system outperforms the two Machine Learning models, and provides significantly higher Recall. It also confirms that our system can be used to produce annotated data sets that are large enough to envisage Machine Learning or Deep Learning approaches for the task of Logical Layout Analysis. Combining rules and Machine Learning models into hybrid systems could potentially provide even better performances. […]

Corpus and Models for Lemmatisation and POS-tagging of Classical French Theatre

Jean-Baptiste Camps ; Simon Gabay ; Paul Fièvre ; Thibault Clérice ; Florian Cafiero.
This paper describes the process of building an annotated corpus and training models for classical French literature, with a focus on theatre, and particularly comedies in verse. It was originally developed as a preliminary step to the stylometric analyses presented in Cafiero and Camps [2019]. The use of a recent lemmatiser based on neural networks and a CRF tagger allows to achieve accuracies beyond the current state-of-the art on the in-domain test, and proves to be robust during out-of-domain tests, i.e.up to 20th c.novels.

TraduXio Project: Latest Upgrades and Feedback

Philippe Lacour ; Aurélien Bénel.
TraduXio is a digital environment for computer assisted multilingual translation which is web-based, free to use and with an open source code. Its originality is threefold-whereas traditional technologies are limited to two languages (source/target), TraduXio enables the comparison of different versions of the same text in various languages; its concordancer provides relevant and multilingual suggestions through a classification of the source according to the history, genre and author; it uses collaborative devices (privilege management, forums, networks, history of modification, etc.) to promote collective (and distributed) translation. TraduXio is designed to encourage the diversification of language learning and to promote a reappraisal of translation as a professional skill. It can be used in many different ways, by very diverse kind of people. In this presentation, I will present the recent developments of the software (its version 2.1) and illustrate how specific groups (language teaching, social sciences, literature) use it on a regular basis. In this paper, I present the technology but concentrate more on the possible uses of TraduXio, thus focusing on translators' feedback about their experience when working in this digital environment in a truly collaborative way.

Spoken word corpus and dictionary definition for an African language

Wanjiku Nganga ; Ikechukwu Achebe.
The preservation of languages is critical to maintaining and strengthening the cultures and identities of communities, and this is especially true for under-resourced languages with a predominantly oral culture. Most African languages have a relatively short literary past, and as such the task of dictionary making cannot rely on textual corpora as has been the standard practice in lexicography. This paper emphasizes the significance of the spoken word and the oral tradition as repositories of vocabulary, and argues that spoken word corpora greatly outweigh the value of printed texts for lexicography. We describe a methodology for creating a digital dialectal dictionary for the Igbo language from such a spoken word corpus. We also highlight the language technology tools and resources that have been created to support the transcription of thousands of hours of Igbo speech and the subsequent compilation of these transcriptions into an XML-encoded textual corpus of Igbo dialects. The methodology described in this paper can serve as a blueprint that can be adopted for other under-resourced languages that have predominantly oral cultures.

Optical Recognition Assisted Transcription with Transkribus: The Experiment concerning Eugène Wilhelm's Personal Diary (1885-1951)

Régis Schlagdenhauffen.
This article proposes use the Transkribus software to report on a "user experiment" in a French-speaking context. It is based on the semi-automated transcription project using the diary of the jurist Eugène Wilhelm (1866-1951). This diary presents two main challenges. The first is related to the time covered by the writing process-66 years. This leads to variations in the form of the writing, which becomes increasingly "unreadable" with time. The second challenge is related to the concomitant use of two alphabets: Roman for everyday text and Greek for private issues. After presenting the project and the specificities related to the use of the tool, the experiment presented in this contribution is structured around two aspects. Firstly, I will summarise the main obstacles encountered and the solutions provided to overcome them. Secondly, I will come back to the collaborative transcription experiment carried out with students in the classroom, presenting the difficulties observed and the solutions found to overcome them. In conclusion, I will propose an assessment of the use of this Human Text Recognition software in a French-speaking context and in a teaching situation.